PHL111 Valid Reasoning, Past Assignments

Past Assignments
August 27
Read chapter 1 of A Concise Introduction to Logic. Answer the four questions on Angel. To do this, log into your Angel account, select PHL111 from your courses, and click on the tab for Learning Modules. You'll see the "Chapter 1 questions" link there. Answer the questions before class.

While in Angel, and after selecting PHL111, click on the "Communicate" link to the left, or the "Communicate" tab above. You'll see a page where there is a block you can click to register your Clicker.

FYI, here are the two card examples. See if you agree that their structure is the same. Why do most people find the second easier, and the first harder?

September 3
Read chapter 2 of A Concise Introduction to Logic. Before class starts, answer the four questions on Angel.

You are not expected to answer the questions in the reading! Soon I'll post a homework for Friday, and that will have questions from the reading.

While in Angel, and after selecting PHL111, click on the "Communicate" link to the left, or the "Communicate" tab above. You'll see a page where there is a block you can click to register your Clicker.

Some have asked about past reading assignments. Reading questions become available when the homework is assigned, and become unavailable 10 minutes before the class they are due.

September 5
Homework 1: please do problems 4 and 5 of chapter 2 in the textbook. These are translations, to practice moving from English to our logical language. Hand them in at the beginning of class on Friday.

A few people asked me about translation keys. We've done examples in class, and there is one in the book, but here's the idea. By "translation key" we mean a translation from English to our logical language. Suppose we wanted to translate the sentence:
If Spongebob lives in Bikini Bottom, then Spongebob pays no property taxes.
You might have a key that includes the following:
Propositional Logic .............. English
P:            Spongebob lives in Bikini Bottom
Q:            Spongebob pays no property taxes
And then if you translated the sentence you would have:
(P --> Q)
Someone would be able to use your key to determine how to translate your logical sentence back into an English sentence.

So, for this homework, for the problem where you have to supply your own key, you'll write one answer key, which will have a column of atomic English sentences, and beside it a column of atomic logic sentences (P, Q, R....).

Reading: Read chapter 3 of A Concise Introduction to Logic. Before class starts, answer the questions on Angel.

September 10
Read chapter 4 of A Concise Introduction to Logic. Before class starts, answer the questions on Angel.

September 12
Homework 2: Please do problems 1a, 1b, 1c, 2a, 2b, and 2c from chapter 3 of the textbook and do problem 1 from chapter 4 of the textbook. Hand them in at the beginning of class on Friday.

If you want to see a different view of arguments, check into the argument clinic.

September 15

September 19
I was asked about a way to post the rules in one place. A preliminary version of chapter 13 is now online (it's preliminary because the truth tables are in a form not quite like we usually draw them). It has a summary of the entire language. There is stuff there we've not studied yet, but it still might be a handy reference.

Quiz #1. The first half of the quiz you will complete by yourself. You will have 25 minutes. We will stop abruptly at 25 minutes. The second half of the quiz you will complete with the other people sitting in your row. You will have 30 minutes.

Counting from the front of the room (the row closest to the board is 1) to the back (the row farthest from the board is 12), the seating assignments are:
Ardila Sebastian 1
Clegg Erin 1
Desiderio Matthew 1
Fioramonti Eileen 1
Hook Stephen 1
Jean Dimitri 1
Williams Christina 1

Bartlett Maclain 2
Bullard Derek 2
Davis Akeem 2
Fentzke Joseph 2
Hussain Zeshan 2
Rogers Miller Seth 2
Tantillo Sienna 2

Jacobbi Kaitlin 3
Muncy Brianna 3
Peffer Kyan 3
Schwinger Alyssa 3
Tinker Kaleigh 3

Boutelle Howard 4
Corrao Alexandra 4
Denise Dallas 4
Lara Jesus 4
Lyding Dana 4
Moriarty Devin 4
Sandford Lauren 4

Beshures Chelsea 5
Haran John 5
Montalbano Dean 5
Nasta Alexis 5
Niebling Jennifer 5
Sharrow Jenna 5
Stilson Samantha 5

Andreula Angelo 6
Burgess Kyle 6
Jansing Alexander 6
Laws Scot 6
Ong Samantha 6
Romeo Jacqueline 6

Ardila Dylan 7
Chung Angelique 7
Gavigan Jason 7
Knauer Quinn 7
Kuznetsova Viktoriya 7
Mulero Tiffany 7
Yu Cynthia 7

Lenihan Shane 8
McGlynn John 8
Moran Allison 8
Reilly Lucas 8
Towne Kaela 8
Wilson Colin 8

Collard Joel 9
Mccormick David 9
Mill Christina 9
Milton Camille 9
Pittari Nicholas 9
Vatore Kaylee 9
Viniski Miles 9

Barcus Morgan 10
Belgrave Jarrod 10
Bockhahn Jennifer 10
Hiatt Ashley 10
Kossmann John 10
Peralta Mia 10

Bulriss Miranda 11
Caswell Robert 11
Chirico Paul 11
Goh Lillian 11
Odell Austin 11

Bamgbelu Kolawole 12
Baptiste James 12
Everly Alyssa 12
Kiggins Megan 12
Labonte Melissa 12
Wood Destiny 12

Here is the seating list alphabetical:
Andreula Angelo 6
Ardila Sebastian 1
Ardila Dylan 7
Bamgbelu Kolawole 12
Baptiste James 12
Barcus Morgan 10
Bartlett Maclain 2
Belgrave Jarrod 10
Beshures Chelsea 5
Bockhahn Jennifer 10
Boutelle Howard 4
Bullard Derek 2
Bulriss Miranda 11
Burgess Kyle 6
Caswell Robert 11
Chirico Paul 11
Chung Angelique 7
Clegg Erin 1
Collard Joel 9
Corrao Alexandra 4
Davis Akeem 2
Denise Dallas 4
Desiderio Matthew 1
Everly Alyssa 12
Fentzke Joseph 2
Fioramonti Eileen 1
Gavigan Jason 7
Goh Lillian 11
Haran John 5
Hiatt Ashley 10
Hook Stephen 1
Hussain Zeshan 2
Jacobbi Kaitlin 3
Jansing Alexander 6
Jean Dimitri 1
Kiggins Megan 12
Knauer Quinn 7
Kossmann John 10
Kuznetsova Viktoriya 7
Labonte Melissa 12
Lara Jesus 4
Laws Scot 6
Lenihan Shane 8
Lyding Dana 4
Mccormick David 9
McGlynn John 8
Mill Christina 9
Milton Camille 9
Montalbano Dean 5
Moran Allison 8
Moriarty Devin 4
Mulero Tiffany 7
Muncy Brianna 3
Nasta Alexis 5
Niebling Jennifer 5
Odell Austin 11
Ong Samantha 6
Peffer Kyan 3
Peralta Mia 10
Pittari Nicholas 9
Reilly Lucas 8
Rogers Miller Seth 2
Romeo Jacqueline 6
Sandford Lauren 4
Schwinger Alyssa 3
Sharrow Jenna 5
Stilson Samantha 5
Tantillo Sienna 2
Tinker Kaleigh 3
Towne Kaela 8
Vatore Kaylee 9
Viniski Miles 9
Williams Christina 1
Wilson Colin 8
Wood Destiny 12
Yu Cynthia 7

September 22
Read chapter 6 before class. There are a few questions on Angel about the chapter, and about the quiz. The quiz grades should be available in your Angel account.

September 24
Today only, my office hours are 1-2 p.m. Sorry, but I have a meetings 2-5 and could not fix the conflict.

Please note: before now, I've only counted clicker questions for effort (you got credit no matter what your answer). From here on, since we have done so well on our first quiz, and have made a lot of progress, I'll count the clicker questions for their correctness when there is a correct answer.

October 1
Homework 3: Do problems 1, 2, 3, and 4 from chapter 7 of the textbook. (The questions are at the end of the chapter! You may need to look at the lastest version of the chapter.) Note that problems 3 and 4 have three parts. Some of these problem are more challenging than you have seen so far.

October 3
Read chapter 8 of A Concise Introduction to Logic. Answer the problems on Angel.

October 10
Homework 4:I'll be out of town. Complete the following assignment, during class, working with your group. (Print it and bring it to class.)

Between 10:10 and 11:00 a.m. you can hand in 1 copy of the homework for your team, in the philosophy department office. Drop one and only one completed copy for your group. The philosophy department is MCC 212.

Look below to find which group is yours. Meet in your row, to make things easy.

October 13
Quiz 2. The structure will be the same, and the groups will be the same, as for quiz 1. (More than 90% of you requested the same structure. We may change groups for the later quizes.) Material will include: semantics, syntax, and inferences rules for negation, conditional, conjunction, disjunctions; definition of valid argument, sound argument, tautology, theorem; direct proofs and conditional proofs; translations using all our connectives.

The first half of the quiz you will complete by yourself. You will have 20 minutes. We will stop abruptly at 20 minutes. The second half of the quiz you will complete with the other people sitting in your row. You will have 35 minutes.

Counting from the front of the room (the row closest to the board is 1) to the back (the row farthest from the board is 12), the seating assignments are:
Ardila Sebastian 1
Clegg Erin 1
Desiderio Matthew 1
Fioramonti Eileen 1
Hook Stephen 1
Jean Dimitri 1
Williams Christina 1

Bartlett Maclain 2
Bullard Derek 2
Davis Akeem 2
Fentzke Joseph 2
Hussain Zeshan 2
Rogers Miller Seth 2
Tantillo Sienna 2

Jacobbi Kaitlin 3
Muncy Brianna 3
Peffer Kyan 3
Schwinger Alyssa 3
Tinker Kaleigh 3

Boutelle Howard 4
Corrao Alexandra 4
Denise Dallas 4
Lara Jesus 4
Lyding Dana 4
Moriarty Devin 4
Sandford Lauren 4

Beshures Chelsea 5
Haran John 5
Montalbano Dean 5
Nasta Alexis 5
Niebling Jennifer 5
Sharrow Jenna 5
Stilson Samantha 5

Andreula Angelo 6
Burgess Kyle 6
Jansing Alexander 6
Laws Scot 6
Ong Samantha 6
Romeo Jacqueline 6

Ardila Dylan 7
Chung Angelique 7
Gavigan Jason 7
Knauer Quinn 7
Kuznetsova Viktoriya 7
Mulero Tiffany 7
Yu Cynthia 7

Lenihan Shane 8
McGlynn John 8
Moran Allison 8
Reilly Lucas 8
Towne Kaela 8
Wilson Colin 8

Collard Joel 9
Mccormick David 9
Mill Christina 9
Milton Camille 9
Pittari Nicholas 9
Vatore Kaylee 9
Viniski Miles 9

Barcus Morgan 10
Belgrave Jarrod 10
Bockhahn Jennifer 10
Hiatt Ashley 10
Kossmann John 10
Peralta Mia 10

Bulriss Miranda 11
Caswell Robert 11
Chirico Paul 11
Goh Lillian 11
Odell Austin 11

Bamgbelu Kolawole 12
Baptiste James 12
Everly Alyssa 12
Kiggins Megan 12
Labonte Melissa 12
Wood Destiny 12

Here is the seating list alphabetically:
Andreula Angelo 6
Ardila Sebastian 1
Ardila Dylan 7
Bamgbelu Kolawole 12
Baptiste James 12
Barcus Morgan 10
Bartlett Maclain 2
Belgrave Jarrod 10
Beshures Chelsea 5
Bockhahn Jennifer 10
Boutelle Howard 4
Bullard Derek 2
Bulriss Miranda 11
Burgess Kyle 6
Caswell Robert 11
Chirico Paul 11
Chung Angelique 7
Clegg Erin 1
Collard Joel 9
Corrao Alexandra 4
Davis Akeem 2
Denise Dallas 4
Desiderio Matthew 1
Everly Alyssa 12
Fentzke Joseph 2
Fioramonti Eileen 1
Gavigan Jason 7
Goh Lillian 11
Haran John 5
Hiatt Ashley 10
Hook Stephen 1
Hussain Zeshan 2
Jacobbi Kaitlin 3
Jansing Alexander 6
Jean Dimitri 1
Kiggins Megan 12
Knauer Quinn 7
Kossmann John 10
Kuznetsova Viktoriya 7
Labonte Melissa 12
Lara Jesus 4
Laws Scot 6
Lenihan Shane 8
Lyding Dana 4
Mccormick David 9
McGlynn John 8
Mill Christina 9
Milton Camille 9
Montalbano Dean 5
Moran Allison 8
Moriarty Devin 4
Mulero Tiffany 7
Muncy Brianna 3
Nasta Alexis 5
Niebling Jennifer 5
Odell Austin 11
Ong Samantha 6
Peffer Kyan 3
Peralta Mia 10
Pittari Nicholas 9
Reilly Lucas 8
Rogers Miller Seth 2
Romeo Jacqueline 6
Sandford Lauren 4
Schwinger Alyssa 3
Sharrow Jenna 5
Stilson Samantha 5
Tantillo Sienna 2
Tinker Kaleigh 3
Towne Kaela 8
Vatore Kaylee 9
Viniski Miles 9
Williams Christina 1
Wilson Colin 8
Wood Destiny 12
Yu Cynthia 7

October 15
Homework 5: due at the beginning of class. Do problems 1 and 2 (each has three parts) of chapter 8.

October 20

CHANGE TO OFFICE HOURS: today only (October 20th) I have a conflicting meeting and can't be in my usual office hours of 1:30-3:00. If you need to see me, send me an email and I can meet you at 8, 11, or 3.

October 22
Homework 6: do the proofs for problems 1 and 2 of chapter 9 of the book. The proofs for problem 2 are hard, so think of them as extra credit. Do your best! (NOTE: there was a mistake in the previous version of the chapter, where the problems were misnumbered. That's fixed now. If in doubt, check the latest version of the chapter online.)

October 27
Read chapter 13 of A Concise introduction to logic.

Homework 7: do problem 1 of chapter 13 of the book.

HINT: I was asked about phrases like "... is a male poriferan." You could treat that as one predicte, but consider: something can be male and not a poriferan; and something can be a poriferan and not male; so why not treat them as two predicates? That is, would you agree that "x is a male poriferan" is equivalent to "x is male and x is poriferan"?

October 31
Don't forget your clickers! I've been lecturing a bunch, to try to catch up a little, but we're caught up and I want to give you a chance to share your thoughts -- using the clickers -- on these quantifiers thingies.

Redo of homework 6 due. If you do it and hand it in on October 31, the score can replace your homework 6 score.
1. Premises: (P ↔ Q), (P ↔ S). Conclusion: (P ↔ (Q ∧ S)).
2. Premises: (P v Q), (P ↔ S), (Q ↔ S). Conclusion: S.
3. Premises: ¬(P → Q). Conclusion: ¬(P ↔ Q).
4. Conclusion: (((P ↔ Q) ∧ (Q ↔ S)) → (P ↔ S))
5. Conclusion: (¬(P ∧ Q) ↔ (¬P v ¬Q))
6. Conclusion: ¬(P ↔ ¬P)
As requested, here are some hints. Hint 1 Problem 5 is hard. One direction is not challenging: showing ((¬P v ¬Q) → ¬(P ∧ Q)) is easier. But showing (¬(P ∧ Q) → (¬P v ¬Q)) is challenging. Here's a hint. You'll assume ¬(P ∧ Q) to show (¬P v ¬Q)). Do an indirect derivation, and show (P ∧ Q) by showing P (with an indirect derivation) and Q (with an indirect derivation), and put them together with adjunction. That contradicts your ACD! Hint 2 You'll surely do an indirect derivation of 6. That means you'll have (P ↔ ¬P). That's clearly contradictory, but how do we make this explicit? Try to prove P and then to prove ¬P.

November 3
Homework 8. Please translate the following sentences. Provide one key. Use quantifiers, of course. Some of these sentences are obviously false! Don't let that bother you. Assume your domain of discourse is animals.
1. Everything is an ocelot.
2. Nothing is an ocelot.
3. Some ocelots are mammals.
4. All mammals are ocelots.
5. No ocelot is black.
6. Some yellow ocelots are carnivorous mammals.
7. All green frogs are amphibians.
8. Some frogs are green and yellow.
9. Something is a green frog.
10. Nothing is a green ocelot.
For these, you will use the eight common translation forms, reviewed both in the book in chapter 14, and in class on 31 October.

November 7
Quiz three. Topics include: all possible proof forms for the propositional logic. Meaning of: valid argument, theorem, tautology. Translations using predicates, names, quantifiers. The eight most common forms of quantifier phrases.

The format will be the same as for the other quizes, but the teams are new. These are listed below. I want to suggest that teams sit as best they can in a circle, and that they work together on each problem. If someone in the group refuses to work with the others -- this happened on only one team, but let us be prepared for it -- then the others should tell that person to hand in his or her own work, with his or her name alone on the work, and the rest can proceed without that person. I would not penalize anyone for this; I would just grade them as is. I might penalize a team that kicked someone out who didn't want to go, of course; but that's different!

Bullard, Derek 1
Ardila, Dylan 1
Montalbano, Dean 1
Fioramonti, Eileen 1
Williams, Christina 1
Mill, Christina 1

Haran, John 2
Kuznetsova, Viktoriya 2
Stilson, Samantha 2
Milton, Camille 2
Andreula, Angelo 2

Collard, Joel 3
Boutelle, Howard 3
Yu, Cynthia 3
Niebling, Jennifer 3
Laws, Scot 3
Jansing, Alexander 3

Wood, Destiny 4
Tinker, Kaleigh 4
Clegg, Erin 4
Baptiste, James 4
Chirico, Paul 4

Reilly, Lucas 5
Everly, Alyssa 5
Towne, Kaela 5
Rogers Miller, Seth 5
Kiggins, Megan 5

Caswell, Robert 6
Pittari, Nicholas 6
Hiatt, Ashley 6
Chung, Angelique 6
Kossmann, John 6
Desiderio, Matthew 6

Corrao, Alexandra 7
Sandford, Lauren 7
Gavigan, Jason 7
Davis, Akeem 7
Vatore, Kaylee 7
Lenihan, Shane 7

Jacobbi, Kaitlin 8
Beshures, Chelsea 8
Hook, Stephen 8
Lyding, Dana 8
Ong, Samantha 8
Denise, Dallas 8

Lara, Jesus 9
Tantillo, Sienna 9
Jean, Dimitri 9
Fentzke, Joseph 9
McGlynn, John 9
Viniski, Miles 9

Burgess, Kyle 10
Labonte, Melissa 10
Moran, Allison 10
Ardila, Sebastian 10
Muncy, Brianna 10

Hussain, Zeshan 11
Mccormick, David 11
Odell, Austin 11
Peralta, Mia 11
Barcus, Morgan 11

Romeo, Jacqueline 12
Bamgbelu, Kolawole 12
Bockhahn, Jennifer 12
Goh, Lillian 12
Moriarty, Devin 12
Schwinger, Alyssa 12
Here is the list alphabetical:
Andreula, Angelo 2
Ardila, Dylan 1
Ardila, Sebastian 10
Bamgbelu, Kolawole 12
Baptiste, James 4
Barcus, Morgan 11
Beshures, Chelsea 8
Bockhahn, Jennifer 12
Boutelle, Howard 3
Bullard, Derek 1
Burgess, Kyle 10
Caswell, Robert 6
Chirico, Paul 4
Chung, Angelique 6
Clegg, Erin 4
Collard, Joel 3
Corrao, Alexandra 7
Davis, Akeem 7
Denise, Dallas 8
Desiderio, Matthew 6
Everly, Alyssa 5
Fentzke, Joseph 9
Fioramonti, Eileen 1
Gavigan, Jason 7
Goh, Lillian 12
Haran, John 2
Hiatt, Ashley 6
Hook, Stephen 8
Hussain, Zeshan 11
Jacobbi, Kaitlin 8
Jansing, Alexander 3
Jean, Dimitri 9
Kiggins, Megan 5
Kossmann, John 6
Kuznetsova, Viktoriya 2
Labonte, Melissa 10
Lara, Jesus 9
Laws, Scot 3
Lenihan, Shane 7
Lyding, Dana 8
Mccormick, David 11
McGlynn, John 9
Mill, Christina 1
Milton, Camille 2
Montalbano, Dean 1
Moran, Allison 10
Moriarty, Devin 12
Muncy, Brianna 10
Niebling, Jennifer 3
Odell, Austin 11
Ong, Samantha 8
Peralta, Mia 11
Pittari, Nicholas 6
Reilly, Lucas 5
Rogers Miller, Seth 5
Romeo, Jacqueline 12
Sandford, Lauren 7
Schwinger, Alyssa 12
Stilson, Samantha 2
Tantillo, Sienna 9
Tinker, Kaleigh 4
Towne, Kaela 5
Vatore, Kaylee 7
Viniski, Miles 9
Williams, Christina 1
Wood, Destiny 4
Yu, Cynthia 3

12 November

Please note: there had been a typo in my list of tests below. Our final exam is in our class room, on Wednesday December 10, 8:00 a.m. to 10:00 a.m. You will take the exam alone -- no teams for the test.

Quiz 4 is coming up quickly. Here is what I'd like to do: have the quiz be a take home, in stages, that the teams do together. Is that acceptable? The advantage of take home is that we can do something more fun. The disadvantage is that you must somehow find time when your whole team can meet. We can dedicate some class time to letting teams work, if you like. Let me know if this sounds like a bad idea or a good idea, or if you have any concerns or suggestions. We can also make the final part of it due on the 24th, if that helps.
November 19
This Wednesday only: my office hours are 1:00 -- 2:30 p.m. (I have a meeting at 2:30.) Please make a note of this. I can also meet some times on Thursday if anyone needs to see me then.

Complete the following proofs.
1. Premises: ∀x(Fx → Gx), Fa, Fb. Conclusion: (Ga ^ Gb).
2. Premises: ∀x(Hx ↔ Fx), ¬Fc. Conclusion: ¬Hc.
3. Premises: ∀x(Gx v Hx), ¬Hb. Conclusion: Gb.
4. Premises: ∀x(Fx → Gx), ∀x(Gx → Hx). Conclusion: (Fa → Ha).
5. Premises: ∀x(Gx v Ix), ∀x(Gx → Jx), ∀x(Ix → Jx). Conclusion: Jb.
6. Premises: ∀x(Fx ↔ Gx), Gd. Conclusion: ∃x(Gx ^ Fx).
7. Premises: ∃x(Gx ^ Fx), ∀x(Fx ↔ Hx), ∀x(¬Gx v Jx). Conclusion: ∃x(Hx ^ Jx).
8. Conclusion: (∀x(Fx → Gx) → (∃xFx → ∃xGx))

November 21, 23
Here is part 1 of quiz four.

A note about the quiz. You can tell me who you ruled out, and that's OK, but also if you like to be thorough you can use MTP to rule out some of the suspects. A special note. I'll let you do MTP on any disjunct in a big disjunction. This is kind of leaping ahead, but it is OK. So, you can do MTP with ¬P and ((P v Q) v (R v S)) and get (Q v (R v S)); or do MTP with ¬R and ((P v Q) v (R v S)) and get ((P v Q) v S); and so on. That stretches our rule a bit, but works out OK.

Here is the list of teams.

Work on the quiz on your own over the weekend. Then, on Monday, teams can work together for part of our class. Your team will be the same team as we had for quiz 3. On Monday, let's sit in our assigned rows, just to make things easier.

If you're not here Monday, and what is here from your team finishes the quiz on Monday, you'll have to finish the quiz part 1 on your own.
December 3
Here is the entirety of Quiz 4.

Note: if your team went ahead without you, perhaps because you were absent, no worry. Just finish the quiz by yourself and hand it in to me. If you are uncertain, look online at Angel. I've been putting in scores as I get them. If you have no score for Quiz 4 part 1 or part 2, then you should not wait for your team but go ahead and complete it on your own as soon as you can.

Homework 10 due. This homework has 10 problems.
For the first three problems, complete the proof. You will need to use universal derivation in these proofs.

1. Premises: ∀x(Fx ↔ Hx), ∀y(Hy ↔ Gy). Conclusion: ∀z(Fz ↔ Gz).
2. Conclusion: (∀x(¬Fx v Gx) → ∀x(Fx → Gx))
3. Conclusion: (∀xFx ↔ ¬∃x¬Fx)

For these three problems, create an informal model that shows the argument is obviously invalid.

4. Premises: ∀x(Fx → Gx), ¬Ga. Conclusion: ¬Fb.
5. Premises: ∀x(Fx v Gx), ¬Fa. Conclusion: Gb.
6. Premises: ∀x(Fx → Gx), ∃xFx. Conclusion: Gc.

For these last four problems, let's try something new. You've learned to test arguments for validity. But can you create your own valid arguments? Use your logic skills to write arguments. Try to write about your field of study: if you are a management major, illustrate some important argument in management; and so on.

7. Write a valid argument in everday English that has at least two premises. One of the premises must be a conditional.
8. Write a valid argument in everday English that has at least two premises. One of the premises must be a disjunction.
9. Write a valid argument in everday English that has at least two premises. One of the premises must be a universal claim (such as, "all F are G").
10. Write a valid argument in everday English that has at least two premises. One of the premises must be an existential claim (such as, "something is an F").
December 5
All outstanding parts of Quiz 4 will be due at the beginning of class. We'll review the homework.

Please note the following. I think you'll be hard pressed to prove Part 2, if you translate "the killer had type O blood" by introducing a new name for "the killer." The point of the claim is that whoever killed Professor Plum had type O blood. So consider that sentence as equivalent to: "Whoever killed Professor Plum had type O blood" and you won't get stuck.