Below are six claims, each followed by some additional material written by the individual(s) making the claim (these are condensed and slightly simplified accounts taken from real positions given by activists, a policy maker, and a philosopher). Your goal is to analyze the claim, given your best understanding of the additional material provided, to determine both the implicit ethical claim(s) and the implicit factual claim(s). If you can, try to determine what the person thinks is the relevant good or evil in each case. (Try to use Aristotle's method as described in our notes. Obviously with such texts you can only use the method to the degree that the text itself makes clear, but it is some guide.) Write a clear short answer that is in complete sentences for each problem.
  1. Claim: We should not try to stop rainforest logging.
    Background information: We should not outlaw rainforest logging because every person should be free to do whatever he wishes in contexts where his actions do not interfere with the interests of other human beings.

  2. Claim: We should try to stop rainforest logging.
    Background information: We should preserve the rainforest because there are many plants that could help scientists develop new crops, medicines, and other products. We don't want to lose our knowledge of the rainforest plants, animals and other information.

  3. Claim: We should try to stop rainforest logging.
    Background information: We should try to stop rainforest logging because people have no right to destroy the living species of the rainforests for their own purposes.

  4. Claim: Abortion is murder.
    Background information: Abortion is murder because every fetus is a human.

  5. Claim: Abortion should be legal in the first trimester.
    Background information: In the first trimester the fetus is simple. It cannot think or talk or plan. It should not be given rights that supersede those of a woman to choose.

  6. Claim: Abortion should be legal.
    Background information: No human should be forced to serve another, and making abortion illegal would do just that: it makes a woman the forced servant of a fetus.