Exam 2†† Spring 2002†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Name: _____________________
L.F. Bacher, Child Development† PSY 322
Non-Essay Questions are worth 3 points each.† Please use bubble sheets for Questions 1- 15.
Essays are worth 6 points each - there are two essays.
1.† Infant's visual system develops in a certain sequence.† Which one of the following is the correct order of development of infant visual behavior?
a.† acuity good to 3 feet; obligatory attention; smooth pursuit begins
b.† acuity good to 1 foot; anticipate moving object; obligatory attention
c.† acuity good to 1 foot; smooth pursuit; anticipate moving object
2.† Which of the following best describes how infant audition is weaker than adult audition?
a.† infants hear speech sounds less clearly
b.† infants actually detect low sounds better than adults can
c.† infants have a harder time localizing objects in space
d.† the only difference is that infants are less musically sensitive
3.† The concept of affordance is important in understanding how infants learn about their environment.† Which one of the following is a good example of an affordance?
a.† infant grabs a squeaky toy and begins to squeeze it
b.† infant looks at a doll and remembers its face and starts to smile
c.† infants begins to walk which is related to the stepping reflex
4.† Which one of the following is an example of recall memory (rather than recognition memory)?
a.† baby looks much more at the familiar toy she played with yesterday
b.† baby repeats action she saw on Jack in the Box to make it pop up
c. †parent gives baby the rattle that the baby likes the best
d.† parent sees baby looking at her bottle and gets it for her
5.† From the following list, which one is NOT characteristic of infant memory?
a.† infants can actually remember events for up to 5 months
b.† infants can use reminders to help them retain a memory
c.† infants are much better at recognition than recall
6.† Which one of the following items describes the order of attachment development?
a.† stay near mom;† discriminant responsiveness;† indiscriminant responsiveness
b.† indiscriminant responsiveness;† stay near mom;† discriminant responsiveness
c.† indiscriminant responsiveness;† discriminant responsiveness;† stay near mom
d.† discriminant responsiveness;† indiscriminant responsiveness;† stay near mom
7.† Which one of the following is NOT true about infant attachment formation?
a.† infants become most attached to whomever feeds them
b.† infants attach to people who they trust
c.† infants attach to people who become safe zones
8.† Chess and Thomas created a system to classify temperament of young children.† Their system had 9 indicators.† Which of the following ones was NOT on their list?
a.† attention span
c.† intensity of reaction
9.† Which one of the following is NOT a component of emotions?
a.† physiological changes
b.† motivation to act
10.† What is the basic limitation that defines cognitive skills in early childhood (2-6 years)?
a.† over focus on superficial
b.† weak memory skills
c.† inability to hold more than one thing in mind at a time
d.† poor attention span
11.† Experience does matter in cognitive development.† What are two cognitive improvements that experience can produce?
a.† improved memory in general;† faster thinking
b.† improved reasoning in general;† better memory for the specific topic
c.† better memory about a topic;† better reasoning about that topic
12.† The statement below (in italics) reflects one of the theories of sex-role identity.† Which theory does this statement reflect?
††††††††††† "I get rewards for doing girl-type things.† I want rewards, so I'll do girl things."
13.† Which one of the following is true about the formation of ethnic identity?
a. ethnic identity is influenced by parents' attitudes and the relative power of that group
b. ethnic identity is influenced by a subjective sense of self and how parents treat them
c. ethnic identity is not so influenced by parents, but by perceptions of their status in society
14.† We discussed 4 kinds of inhibition that children gain as they are socialized to societies rules and customs.† Which one of the following is NOT on the list?
b.† jump to conclusions
15.† Which one of the following promotes prosocial in children?
a.† with children under† ~4, rewards for good behavior work well
b.† parent punishing the child for being unempathic or mean
c.† parent being a consistent model of compassion and kindness
This is the end of the Questions that need to be answered on
the bubble sheet.† Please do mark this
page for your answers in case the bubble sheet reader makes a mistake.† Make sure your name is on the bubble sheet
and this test.
Short Answer.† Please use whole sentences - it will help you be clearer.
16.† Select one of the following methods for studying infants and describe how it is used to learn about infant perception.† (hint:† also include an example)
Methods to choose from:† anticipatory looking; visual habituation;† foot kicking
17.† Define object permanence.
18.† How is attachment to the caregiver related to infant exploration?
19.† In the Ainsworth article, we read that the contexts of mother-infant interaction were important.† Name one of the three primary contexts and say how a parent can show sensitivity to their infant in that context.
20.† Emotions and cognition are linked.† In order for an infant to FEEL a sense of shame, for example,† what cognitive awareness must the child have?
21.† Loftus discussed how adults can form false memories of childhood events.† Given what you know about childhood cognition, why do you think false memories from childhood might be easy to form?
22.† Describe how the "three mountain problem" illustrates a child's egocentrism.
23.† Give an example of how a child might confuse appearance and reality.
24.† The Neo-Piagetian view states that there are stages of cognitive development, but there are several unique domains of cognition.† State (1) one of those domains, (2) a specific skill in that domain, and (3) a domain general skill.
25.† Define the concept of Scripts in children's cognition and give an example.
26.† True or False (Circle your answer)† Differences in behavior between boys and girls exist well before the children have any knowledge about their own sex.
27.† Define and give an example of socio-dramatic play.
28.† Match the type of social rule with an appropriate example.
††††††††††† moral rules††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† I wear my red shoes to play in!
††††††††††† social convention†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Don't hurt others!
††††††††††† personal††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Donít wear pajamas to school!
29.† Choose either instrumental aggression or hostile aggression.† Define it, state the age at which it emerges and give an example.
Essay 1 (6 points).†† Please use whole sentences.
Select ONE from this list:
A.† Describe two methods for promoting empathy in children and two methods for discouraging aggression in children.† Give an example of each (so that would be 4 examples total) and state how effective each method is.
B.† Attachment formation in infancy lays an important foundation for later emotional attachments.† Define attachment (between infant and parent), describe what parental behaviors promote a secure attachment, and state 2 things that might interfere with a secure attachment.
C.† Discuss how a child might learn about their own sex (eg, am I a boy or a girl) in terms of learning by observation.† This theory has 5 components, so I include 2 here to help your memory:† attention to a model and memory.
Essay 2 (6 points).† Please use whole sentences.
Select ONE from this list:
D.† Egocentric thinking characterizes early childhood.† Describe at least three different aspects of this egocentrism (in class, we covered several) using the example we saw in the videotape.† In this videotape, one boy tried to describe objects to another boy when the two boys could not see each other or the objects being described.† Give examples using dialog.
E.† The information processing approach is useful in helping us understand how various mental activities are related to each other.† Create an example that shows how the 6 aspects of this approach are used in an everyday task the child might perform.† Here are the 6:† inputs from environment, sensory register, short term memory, long term memory, control processes and response output.
F.† Discuss how a child's cognitive development might be related to his or her social development.† Be sure to say BOTH how (1) cognitive skills might promote social development and (2) how social development might promote cognitive development.† Consider using the following terms:† perception, egocentrism, memory, attachment, emotion, temperament.† But, include other terms as appropriate!